A major advantage of the letter of credit (LC) is that it is highly customizable. Both the parties can agree to the terms and conditions that suit their business needs. Due to this, the characteristics and types of letters of credit have evolved into a wide range. Some of these are:
Commercial Letter of Credit
It is the most basic form of a LC. In a commercial Letter of Credit, the importer issues the LC with the exporter as the beneficiary. The issuing bank transfers it to the advising bank, which then makes payment to the exporter upon presentation of the necessary documents and proofs for meeting terms and conditions.
- Commercial Letter of Credit
- Confirmed Letter of Credit
- Deferred Payment Letter of Credit
- Discounting the Letter of Credit
- Red Clause and Green Clause Letter of Credit
- Negotiable Letter of Credit
- Transferable Letter of Credit
- Revocable Letter of Credit
- Standby Letter of Credit
- Revolving Letter of Credit
- Mixed Payments Letter of Credit
- Third Party Letter of Credit
- Local Letter of Credit
Confirmed Letter of Credit
Although a commercial letter of credit transfers the creditworthiness from the importer to the issuing bank, there is still a chance that even the issuing bank is unable to make the payment. So, the exporter can seek additional protection by getting confirmed LC where the advising bank also ensures the payment. It will add to the cost of doing business for the exporter.
Deferred Payment Letter of Credit
A normal letter of credit requires the payment to the exporter upon receipt of the necessary proofs for complying with the shipment terms and conditions. On the other hand, a deferred LC gives some time to the importer after the receipt of the goods or commencing the shipment before he is required to pay the amount. It is beneficial in an established working relationship where the importer can only get funds for payment after he has started selling his goods.
Discounting the Letter of Credit
The exporter may need cash before the payment date as per the deferred payment clause. In this case, the advising bank can pay the amount on which they agree to the exporter after deducting a discounting fee before the actual payment by the importer. we can also call such an arrangement ‘discounting the letter of credit’. In this case, the advising bank can pay the amount on which they agree to the exporter after deducting a discounting fee before the actual payment by the importer.
Red Clause and Green Clause Letter of Credit
In a red clause letter of credit, the beneficiary can request an advance payment of the agreed-upon amount presenting the receipt, and write an undertaking that the shipping documents will be delivered on an agreed-upon date. Green clause LC is similar to the red clause LC, with an additional requirement of presenting the proof that the goods that were about to ship were now in the warehouse.
Negotiable Letter of Credit
Negotiability is a common characteristic of a LC. The parties can negotiate and agree to a time and mode of payment which they provide in the terms and conditions.
Transferable Letter of Credit
Transfer of a transferable letter of credit can take place multiple times, usually in domestic transactions. If a non-transferable LC is not in exercise we can transfer that also.
Revocable Letter of Credit
One can revoke and modify a revocable letter of credit without any prior consent of all the parties.
Standby Letter of Credit
The issuing bank will only make the payment when the applicant can’t. We issued for the long term and is usually not transaction-dependent.
Revolving Letter of Credit
There can be multiple withdraws until the pre-set limit is exhausted. It is also for the long term and not transaction dependent.
Mixed Payments Letter of Credit
There can be more than one payments terms and modes. For example, 50% of the payments are paid on sight, 25% is paid after 30 days of shipment, and the remaining 25% is paid when the shipment is received.
Third Party Letter of Credit
The applicant issues the letter of credit for the beneficiary while the third party makes the actual transaction
Local Letter of Credit
It is of use in domestic trade transactions, where both the buyer and seller are from the same country. The other term for it is the ‘domestic or in-land letter of credit’.