Definition of Factoring
Factoring is a financial service in which the business entity sells its bill receivables to a third party at a discount in order to raise funds. It differs from invoice discounting. The concept of invoice discounting involves, getting the invoice discounted at a certain rate to get the funds, whereas the concept of factoring is broader. Factoring involves the selling of all the accounts receivable to an outside agency. Such agency is called a factor.
Concept of Factoring
The seller makes the sale of goods or services and generates invoices for the same. The business then sells all its invoices to a third party called the factor. The factor pays the seller, after deducting some discount on the invoice value. The rate of discount in factoring ranges from 2 to 6 percent. The factor does not make the payment of all invoices immediately to the seller. Rather, it pays only up to 75 to 80 percent of invoice value after deducting the discount. The remaining 20 to 25 percent of the invoice value is paid after the factor receives the payments from the seller’s customers.
Types of Factoring
There are various types of factoring such as recourse and non-recourse, advance and maturity, full factoring, disclosed and undisclosed, domestic and cross-border. For detail regarding the types visit the following link
Functions of Factor
The following are the functions performed by a factor:
- Maintenance of Sales Ledger: Factor is responsible for maintaining the sales ledger of the client. So all the sales transactions of the client are taken care of by the factor.
- Financing: The factor finances the client by purchasing all the account receivables.
- Credit Protection: In the case of non-recourse factoring, the risk of non-payment or bad debts is on the factor.
- Collection of Money: The factor performs the duty of collecting funds from the client’s debtors. This enables the client to focus on core areas of business instead of putting energies in the collection of money.
The following steps are involved in the process of factoring:
- The seller sells the goods to the buyer and raises the invoice on him.
- The seller then submits the invoice to the factor for funding. The factor verifies the invoice.
- After verification, the factor pays 75 to 80 percent to the client/seller.
- The factor then waits for the customer to make the payment to him.
- On receiving the payment from the customer, the factor pays the remaining 20 to 25 percent of the amount to the client after deducting his fee.
Advantages of Factoring
The following are the advantages:
- It reduces the credit risk of the seller.
- The working capital cycle runs smoothly as the factor immediately provides funds on the invoice.
- Sales ledger maintenance by the factor leads to a reduction of cost.
- Improves liquidity and cash flow in the organization.
- It leads to improvement of cash in hand. This helps the business to pay its creditors in a timely manner which helps in negotiating better discount terms.
- It reduces the need for the introduction of new capital in the business.
Disadvantages of Factoring
The following are the disadvantages:
- Factor collecting the money on behalf of the company, can lead to stress in the company and the client relationships.
- The cost of factoring is very high.
- Bad behavior of factor with the creditors can hamper the goodwill of the company.
- Factors often avoid taking the responsibility of risky debtors. So the burden of managing such debtor is always on the company.
Thus, factoring forms an important part of business, especially those businesses which are big in size. If used wisely and to the benefit of the company, it can help the business to grow significantly.