Accounting for Capital Lease

What is Capital Lease Accounting?

Capital lease accounting shows treatment of assets taken on lease by the business under a capital lease agreement with the lessor. In a capital lease, asset taken on lease is recorded as an asset on the balance sheet.

In the capital lease agreement, the lessee (the one who rents the asset) does not end up owning the leased asset, until the end of lease agreement period. At the end of the lease term, the lessee has an option to buy the leased asset. Before you start figuring out the accounting entry of a capital lease agreement, you need to ensure that the lease is actually a capital lease and not an operating lease.

Capital Lease Criteria

A lease is classified as a capital lease when,

  1. The lease term is greater than or equal to 75% of the asset’s useful economic life.
  2. The present value of the lease rental of such a lease is greater than 90% of the fair value of the asset leased at the time of lease. And,
  3. The lessor does not legally own the asset until the end of the term and has the option to purchase it at a price less than fair market value.

Here, although the business does not legally own an asset, the business owns the risks associated with owning the asset and hence capital lease is recorded as an asset on a balance sheet. A capital lease is common to sectors dealing with large assets, for example, the airline industry. Now let us look at the accounting treatment for a capital lease. We will take an example and show journal entries for explaining capital lease accounting.

Accounting for Capital Lease

Example – Capital Lease Accounting

Let’s say that Company A enters into a capital lease contract to lease out an Aeroplane with Company B on the 1st of January’ 2018. The agreement is to lease the Aeroplane worth $1,100,000 for a period of 6 years. The Aeroplane’s useful life is 7 years. The contract specifies that lease payment of Rs. 20,000 should be made at the beginning of each month for 6 years. There is no salvage value at the end of the lease period. The lessee will have an option to buy the asset at the end of the lease period at a value less than the fair market value.

Assumptions Details
Monthly Lease Payment Amount (MLP) INR 20,000
Term of Lease 6 Years
Rate of Interest 12% Annually

Let’s first test whether the transaction falls under Capital Lease Criteria:

Test the Lease on Capital Lease Criteria

Criteria 1: Lease Period

Lease period is covering 86% (6/7 Years) of the asset’s useful life.

Criteria 2: Present Value 

Since the payment of the lease is done at the beginning of each month, the present value of monthly lease rentals is calculated accordingly. #1,033,238 i.e. 94% (1,033,238 / 1,100,000) of the current value of the asset and that is more than 90%.

# Present Value of Aeroplane = MLP + MLP* (1- (1 + Monthly Interest Rate)^(- No. of Periods+1))/Monthly Interest Rate

PV of Aeroplane = 20000 + 20000* (1 – (1 + 1%)^(- 72 + 1)) / 1% = 1033237.91 ~ $1,033,238.

Monthly Interest Rate = 12% Annually / 12 Months = 1% Monthly

No. of Periods = 6 Years * 12 Months = 72 Periods

Now, if the payment of the lease is to have been made at the end of each month, then the formula would have been;

Present Value of the Aeroplane = MLP* (1 – (1 + Monthly Interest Rate)^(- No. of Periods))/Monthly Interest Rate

PV of Aeroplane = 20000* (1 – (1 + 1%)^(-72)) / 1% = 1023007.83 ~ $1,023,008

Criteria 3: Option to Buy 

Yes, as per the contract, the option is present.

Before we begin with the Journal Entries, let’s do some preparatory calculations required before recording journal entries.

Steps to Capital Lease Accounting

We should follow certain steps one by one to accurately account for the capital lease.

Step 1: Calculate Present Value

As we have already calculated under the capital lease criteria test, our present value is 1,033,238.

Step 2: Calculate Interest Expense

Here, because the payment of Lease is to be made at the beginning of each month, the Interest for the month of January 2018 is not made as the Asset is not been used yet by the Lessee. So, the first installment or lease rental will begin from 1st of Jan’ 2018. Principal Amount for Interest Calculation = Total Asset Value less Lease Rental Paid = 1033238 – 20000 = 1013238.

Considering the second alternative as to if the payment is to be made at the end of each month, the interest of the first month is also to be taken into consideration as the Asset is used for the whole month. So, the first installment or lease rental would begin from 31st of Jan’ 2018 till 31st of Jan’ 2024. Hence, the Principal Amount for Interest Calculation = Total Asset Value = 1033238

Interest Rate = 1% for the month.

Interest Expense = 1013238* 1% = 10132.38 ~ 10132

Step 3: Calculate Lease Liability Reduction

We know that the total monthly lease rental payment is $20,000 and Interest Cost as assessed above is 10132. Net liability reduction in second month onwards will be equal to

MLP Less Interest Exp. = 20000 – 10132 = 9868

The detailed calculation can be seen from the monthly table below.

Step 4: Calculate Depreciation

The value of the Aeroplane is 1033238 for 72 months. Per month depreciation is equals to 1033238/72 = 14350.53~ 14351.

Journal Entry for Capital Lease

Now, let’s look at the entries that will take place for capital lease in the books of the lessee:

Entry in the first period or first month in our case.

Date Journal Entry Debit Credit
1-Jan-18 Gross Asset (Equipment) 1,033,238
Lease Liability 1,033,238
1-Jan-18 Lease Rental Expense (Reduction of Lease Liability) 20,000
Cash (Paid to Lessor) 20,000
31-Jan-18 Depreciation (Reduction of Gross Asset) 14,351
Depreciation Expense Account 14,351

Entry in the second period or second month in our case. Following entries will follow for the entire period of lease.

Date Journal Entry Debit Credit
1-Feb-18 Lease Rental Expense (Reduction of Lease Liability) 9,868
Interest Expense 10,132
Cash (Paid to Lessor) 20,000
28-Feb-18 Depreciation (Reduction of Gross Asset) 14,351
Depreciation Expense Account 14,351

Capital Lease Accounting Table

The following table will show the calculation for capital lease accounting. This can be used to record journal entries in each of the 72 months.

Months Liability Beginning Interest Lease Rental Liability Reduction Liability Ending
Jan-18 1033238 20000 20000 1013238
Feb-18 1013238 10132 20000 9868 1003370
Mar-18 1003370 10034 20000 9966 993404
Apr-18 993404 9934 20000 10066 983338
May-18 983338 9833 20000 10167 973171
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
Aug-23 97069 971 20000 19029 78039
Sep-23 78039 780 20000 19220 58820
Oct-23 58820 588 20000 19412 39408
Nov-23 39408 394 20000 19606 19802
Dec-23 19802 198 20000 19802 0

1–3

1.
The Accounting for a Capital Lease. Accounting Tools. September 2018. [Source]
2.
Accounting for Leases. UCSB education. September 2018. [PDF]
3.
Capital Lease Accounting | Double Entry Bookkeeping. Double Entry Bookkeeping. September 2018. [Source]
Last updated on : October 31st, 2018

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