Chart of Accounts or CoA is the record of all accounts of a company pooled at one place. A company usually makes hundreds of transactions daily. So, how the accounts manager knows in which account he or she will have to record it. This is where CoA comes useful.
CoA includes all the accounts that the company has made available for recording transactions in its general ledger. A basic Chart of Accounts includes records of Expenses, Revenue, Liabilities, Equity, and Assets. Usually, CoA includes the name of the account, a brief description, and an identification code.
Chart of accounts might vary depending on the industry the company is operating. Such a chart not only helps a company put all the data together, but also give a quick view of the spending and income. Chart of Accounts also serves as a source of information for an outsider who wants to know about the company and the nature of its business. The document gives a basic idea about the company, its business and day-to-day operations.
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Chart of Accounts – Significance
- Serves as the foundation for the company’s record keeping system. Makes the addition of new accounts and deletion of old accounts easy.
- Chart of Accounts does away the need of remembering every single account that the company maintains. CoA, in the case of finance, works as the map of the entire financial system that the company is following.
- It also makes clear the accounting practices that a company follows and the records that it maintains.
- CoA gives a clear demarcation between different accounts. Also, it makes it easy to identify every transaction that is being recorded in the accounts.
- Also, it makes it easier to follow financial reporting standards.
- The whole idea of the Chart of Accounts is to help an onlooker make better decisions by presenting a summary of the company’s financial health.
Setting up a Chart of Accounts
A new business should always start by setting up the CoA that the business will use. The accounts that come in the CoA depict the nature of the business. Take, for instance, a business operating in the car segment will have more car-related accounts along with general accounts that are common to other businesses.
Account managers make sure that different accounts are listed on the CoA in such a way that they appear logical. Usually, the balance sheet accounts are listed first, followed by income statement accounts.
When an accounts manager user lists the accounts in the CoA, there should be a numbering system to ensure easy identification. Numbering is important as it helps in easily recording a transaction. While bigger businesses usually stick with four-digit numbers, small businesses use three digit numbers. A company may leave additional space at the end for future transactions.
Further, each category gets a range of numbers. For instance, expenses get the numbers between 111-999 or assets from 1001-1999. The management would always want the numbering to be consistent so as easily compare the performance between different years.
How big a CoA be, depends solely on the size of the company. If a company is an international corporation with multiple divisions, then it would have thousands of accounts. And, if a company is small, say a retailer dealing in one product, then it will have lesser accounts.
A simple rule for making edits to a CoA is – add new accounts anytime during the year. But, to delete an account or accounts, one must wait until the end of the year. Deleting an account in the middle could mess up the account books.
CoAs are easily customizable to reflect the company’s operations. However, a company must prepare them as per the guidelines set under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).
Categories of CoA
Every account in the CoA either relates to balance sheet or the income statement. Let’s check the type of accounts under each category:
Balance Sheet Accounts
It is a group of accounts comprising of Asset accounts, Owner’s equity, and Liability accounts.
As clear by the name, such accounts include all the assets that a company owns. Assets can be tangible or intangible, current assets and fixed assets. Numbering for such accounts follows a traditional balance sheet format, starting with the current assets and then fixed assets. Some of the sub-accounts under the assets accounts can be cash, savings account, prepaid insurance, inventory assets, petty cash balance and more.
Such accounts include the debts that a company owes to the creditors or future debts. Usually, liability accounts have the word payable at the end, such as salaries payable, invoices payable, accounts payable and so on.
Similar to the assets accounts, liability accounts follow a traditional balance sheet format where current liabilities come first and then the long-term liabilities. It is up to the company to sequence the items for comparison in different accounting periods. Some of the sub-accounts under liability accounts are accounts payable, notes payable, accrued liabilities, more.
Owner’s Equity Accounts
Show the value of the business after subtracting the liabilities from the assets. Owner’s equity is a measure of the value of a company to the shareholders. Some of the items that go in the owner’s equity include common stock, retained profits and preferred stocks. It again depends on the company to allow a number to such accounts.
Income Statement Accounts
Accounts that come in the income statement accounts comprise of Revenue Accounts and Expense Account.
Detail the income that a business makes from selling its core products and services. Various types of revenue accounts could be sales returns account, sales discounts account, interest income account and so on. Numbering depends on the business, but it normally starts from 4000.
Include all the money that the company spends for generating the revenue for the business. These expenses relate to manufacturing a product or support other revenue-generating activities for the business. To simplify the expenses accounts, one can base it on Schedule C, which would also help the companies to file taxes as well.Last updated on : July 15th, 2019