Net Operating Income

What is Net Operating Income?

Net Operating Income (NOI) is a crucial financial metric used in the field of real estate and business analysis. It serves as a measure of the profitability of a property or business operation that generates income. Unlike other financial indicators, NOI focuses solely on the core operations of the entity and disregards factors like taxes, financing costs, and non-operating expenses.

How to Calculate Net Operating Income?

To calculate NOI, one must subtract the operating expenses from the total operating revenue. Operating revenue consists of income streams like rental payments, lease income, service charges, and any other revenue generated directly from the property or business. On the other hand, operating expenses encompass costs associated with day-to-day operations, such as property management fees, property taxes, insurance, maintenance and repairs, utilities, and similar expenses.

The formula to calculate net operating income is as follows:

NOI = Total Operating Revenue – Operating Expenses

The resulting NOI figure provides a clear insight into the entity’s ability to generate income and cover its operational costs. It is a valuable tool for investors, lenders, and analysts who seek to evaluate the financial performance and value of an income-producing asset. By focusing solely on the core operations, NOI provides a reliable indication of the property or business’s profitability, facilitating informed decision-making processes.


Let’s consider an example of a commercial property, an office building, to illustrate net operating income (NOI).

Let’s say that the office building generates a total operating revenue of $500,000 per year. This revenue comes from rental income, lease payments, and other sources related to the property’s operations.

Also Read: Net Income

Now, let’s consider the operating expenses associated with the property. These expenses include property management fees, property taxes, insurance, maintenance and repairs, utilities, and other costs, which amount to $200,000 per year.

The net operating income from the office building is:

NOI = Total Operating Revenue – Operating Expenses = $500,000 – $200,000 = $300,000

In this example, the net operating income (NOI) for the office building is $300,000 per year. This means that after accounting for the operating expenses, the property generates $300,000 in income that can be used to cover other costs such as financing, taxes, and non-operating expenses.

Advantages of Net Operating Income

Net Operating Income (NOI) offers several advantages in real estate and business analysis. Here are some of the key benefits:

Focus on Core Operations

NOI concentrates solely on the income-generating activities and operational performance of a property or business. By excluding non-operating expenses, taxes, and financing costs, NOI provides a clear picture of the entity’s profitability from its primary operations.

Evaluation of Profitability

NOI allows investors, lenders, and stakeholders to assess the profitability of an income-producing asset. It helps determine the property’s ability to generate income after accounting for operating expenses, thereby indicating the potential return on investment.

Cash Flow Analysis

By examining the operating revenue and expenses, NOI provides insights into the property’s cash flow potential. It helps stakeholders understand the property’s ability to generate consistent and positive cash flow, which is essential for financial stability and sustainability.

Comparative Analysis

NOI allows for easy comparison between different properties or businesses within the same industry or market. Investors can evaluate the relative profitability and income potential of various options to make informed investment decisions.

Property Valuation

Net Operating Income is a crucial factor in property valuation. A higher NOI generally translates to a higher property value, as it indicates greater profitability and income generation potential.

Financing Considerations

Lenders often rely on NOI to evaluate the income-generating capacity of a property or business when considering loan eligibility and terms. A higher NOI can improve the chances of securing favorable financing options.

Performance Monitoring

NOI serves as a useful tool to track the financial performance of a property or business over time. By monitoring changes in NOI, stakeholders can identify trends, assess the effectiveness of operational strategies, and make necessary adjustments to improve profitability.

Decision-Making Tool

NOI assists in informed decision-making regarding property acquisition, property management strategies, and overall business operations. It provides a quantitative basis for evaluating the financial viability and potential risks associated with investments or operational changes.

Investment Benchmark

Investors often use NOI as a benchmark to compare the performance of a property or business against industry standards or market expectations. It helps identify underperforming assets and opportunities for improvement.

Sanjay Borad

Sanjay Bulaki Borad

MBA-Finance, CMA, CS, Insolvency Professional, B'Com

Sanjay Borad, Founder of eFinanceManagement, is a Management Consultant with 7 years of MNC experience and 11 years in Consultancy. He caters to clients with turnovers from 200 Million to 12,000 Million, including listed entities, and has vast industry experience in over 20 sectors. Additionally, he serves as a visiting faculty for Finance and Costing in MBA Colleges and CA, CMA Coaching Classes.

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