Working Capital Management

Working Capital Management Definition

The term ‘working capital management’ primarily refers to the efforts of the management towards effective management of current assets and current liabilities. Working capital is nothing but the difference between the current assets and current liabilities. In other words, efficient working capital management means ensuring sufficient liquidity in the business to be able to satisfy short-term expenses and debts.

In a broader view, ‘working capital management’ includes working capital financing apart from managing the current assets and liabilities. That adds the responsibility for arranging the working capital at the lowest possible cost and utilizing the capital cost-effectively.

Objectives of Working Capital Management

The primary objectives of working capital management include the following:

Smooth Operating Cycle

The key objective of working capital management is to ensure a smooth operating cycle. It means the working capital cycle should never stop for the lack of liquidity, whether for buying raw materials, salaries, tax payments, etc.

Lowest Working Capital

To achieve a smooth operating cycle, it is also important to keep the working capital requirement at the lowest. This may be achieved by favorable credit terms with accounts payable and receivables both, faster production cycle, effective inventory management, etc.

Minimize Rate of Interest or Cost of Capital

It is important to understand that the interest cost of capital is one of the major costs in any firm. The management of the firm should negotiate well with the financial institutions, select the right mode of finance, maintain optimal capital structure, etc.

Optimal Return on Current Asset Investment

In many businesses, you have a liquidity crunch at one point in time and excess liquidity at another. This happens mostly with seasonal industries. At the time of excess liquidity, the management should have good short-term investment avenues to take benefit of the idle funds.

For a detailed understanding, you may consider referring to Objectives of Working Capital Management.

Importance of Effective Working Capital Management

Although the importance of working capital is unquestionable in any type of business, working capital management is a day-to-day activity, unlike capital budgeting decisions. Most importantly, inefficiencies at any level of management impact the working capital and its management. The following are the main points that signify why it is important to take working capital management seriously.

  • Ensures Higher Return on Capital
  • Improvement in Credit Profile & Solvency
  • Increased Profitability
  • Better Liquidity
  • Business Value Appreciation
  • Most Suitable Financing Terms
  • Interruption Free Production
  • Readiness for Shocks and Peak Demand
  • Advantage over Competitors

For a detailed and in-depth understanding, you may refer to Importance of Working Capital Management.

Working Capital Management

Decisions in Working Capital Management

If anybody describes the benefits of working capital management in terms of money, it would most likely be the cost of capital that a business pays on the investment in working capital. The amount of this cost would depend on two things, viz., the quantum of working capital required and the cost of working capital. The quantum of working capital is decided by the working capital policies of a company. In contrast, the optimization of the cost of capital is worked out with working capital management strategies.

Working Capital Deciding Factors – Level and Mode of Financing

The two main factors that decide the quantum of working capital that a business should maintain are liquidity and profitability. Let’s understand the impact of both of these factors in detail.

Nobody denies the importance of liquidity, but most have a question about how much that liquidity should be? What are the right levels of liquidity? We know that a business can’t sit on unlimited or too high liquidity because higher liquidity means higher investment in working capital. And higher investment in working capital means higher cost of capital, interest cost in case financed by bank finance. Therefore, higher liquidity directly impacts profitability as the capital cost rises. In essence, the relation between liquidity and profitability is inverse. On the one hand, higher rather sufficient liquidity is the primary goal of working capital management. On the other hand, profitability as an objective aligns with an organization’s overall objective, i.e., wealth maximization.

With that, it is quite clear that a policy that an organization follows would fall between these pillars. There may be policies that are tilted towards liquidity, and others may be towards profitability.  It is then a management decision where do they want to place their organization’s policy.

For a detailed and in-depth understanding, you may refer to How to Improve Liquidity by Effective Cash Management?

Working Capital Management Policies

Working capital management policies deal with the quantum factor, i.e., how much of current assets should be maintained? These policies, in essence, are different levels of the tradeoff between liquidity and profitability. Theoretically, the following three types of policies are explained, whereas they can be n number of policies depending on where the tradeoff is stricken between the liquidity and profitability.

Relaxed Policy / Conservative policy

This policy has a high level of current assets maintained to honor the current liabilities. Here, the liquidity is very high, and the direct impact on profitability is also high.

Restricted Policy / Aggressive policy

This policy has a lower level of current assets. Here, the liquidity levels are very low; therefore, the direct impact on profitability is also low.

Moderate Policy

It lies between the conservative and aggressive policy.

For a detailed and in-depth understanding, you may refer to Working Capital Policy – Relaxed, Restricted, and Moderate.

Working Capital Management Strategies

Working capital management strategies deal with the cost of capital factor. The question is – How the costs of capital are optimized? A business can choose between short-term vs. long-term sources of capital. Normally, the short-term funds are cheaper than the long-term but risky. Short-term funds are risky in terms of the risk of refinancing and the risk of rising interest rates. Once they mature, they may not be refinanced by the same financial institution, and there is a possibility of revision in interest rate every time they are renewed.

Let’s divide a firm’s capital investment into two, i.e., investment in fixed assets and investment in working capital. Let’s safely assume that long-term funds finance the fixed assets. Now remaining is working capital. Let us further divide working capital into two, i.e., permanent and temporary working capital. The nature of permanent working capital is similar to fixed assets, i.e., that level of investment in working is always present, and the remaining part keeps fluctuating. The working capital management strategies define how these two types of working capital are financed.

Hedging Strategy

Maturity matching or hedging strategy follows the principle of finance, i.e., long-term funds to finance long-term assets and vice versa. In this strategy, the maturities of currents are matched with the maturity of its financing instrument. It does not have any cushion or flexibility in case of any delay in the realization of current assets. However, it is an ideal strategy but involves a high risk of bankruptcy.

Conservative

It is a safer strategy where apart from financing the whole of the permanent working capital, it finances a part of temporary working capital also.

Aggressive

It’s a high-risk strategy where apart from financing the whole of the temporary working capital, it finances a part of permanent working capital also.

For a detailed and in-depth understanding, you may refer to Working Capital Management Strategies / Approaches.

Advantages of Working Capital Management

  • Working capital management ensures sufficient liquidity when required.
  • It evades interruptions in operations.
  • Profitability maximized.
  • Achieves better financial health.
  • Develops competitive advantage due to streamlined operations.

Disadvantages of Working Capital Management

  • It only considers monetary factors. It ignores non-monetary factors like customer and employee satisfaction, government policy, market trend, etc.
  • Difficult to accommodate sudden economic changes.
  • Too high dependence on data is another downside. A smaller organization may not have such data generation.
  • Too many variables to keep in mind, say current ratios, quick ratios, collection periods, etc.

Learn more about the Pros and Cons of Working Capital Management.



Sanjay Borad

Sanjay Bulaki Borad

Sanjay Borad is the founder & CEO of eFinanceManagement. He is passionate about keeping and making things simple and easy. Running this blog since 2009 and trying to explain "Financial Management Concepts in Layman's Terms".

2 thoughts on “Working Capital Management”

  1. Sir I am doing my masters and I must say that your notes are very much helpful in this kovid 19 pandemic situation for studies and knowledge and it’s simplicity in the language makes it more understanding.

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