**Fully-succinct Publicly Verifiable Delegation from Constant-Size Assumptions**

*Alonso González and Alexandros Zacharakis*

**Abstract: **We construct a publicly verifiable, non-interactive delegation scheme for any polynomial size arithmetic circuit with proof-size and verification complexity comparable to those of pairing based zk-SNARKS. Concretely, the proof consists of $O(1)$ group elements and verification requires $O(1)$ pairings and $n$ group exponentiations, where $n$ is the size of the input. While known SNARK-based constructions rely on non-falsifiable assumptions, our construction can be proven sound under any constant size ($k\geq 2$) $k$-Matrix Diffie-Hellman ($k$-MDDH) assumption. However, the size of the reference string as well as the prover's complexity are quadratic in the size of the circuit. This result demonstrates that we can construct delegation from very simple and well-understood assumptions. We consider this work a first step towards achieving practical delegation from standard, falsifiable assumptions.

Our main technical contributions are first, the introduction and construction of what we call "no-signaling, somewhere statistically binding commitment schemes". These commitments are extractable for any small part $x_S$ of an opening $x$, where $S\subseteq [n]$ is of size at most $K$. Here $n$ is the dimension of $x$ and $x_S=(x_i)_{i\in S}$. Importantly, for any $S'\subseteq S$, extracting $x_{S'}$ can be done independently of $S\setminus S'$. Second, we use of these commitments to construct more efficient "quasi-arguments"' with no-signaling extraction, introduced by Paneth and Rothblum (TCC 17). These arguments allow extracting parts of the witness of a statement and checking it against some local constraints without revealing which part is checked. We construct pairing-based quasi arguments for linear and quadratic constraints and combine them with the low-depth delegation result of Gonzáles et. al. (Asiacrypt 19) to construct the final delegation scheme.

**Category / Keywords: **cryptographic protocols / Delegation, Succinct Arguments, Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge

**Original Publication**** (with major differences): **IACR-TCC-2021

**Date: **received 17 Mar 2021, last revised 17 Sep 2021

**Contact author: **alonso gonzalez at toposware com, alexandros zacharakis at upf edu

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20210917:113212 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2021/353

[ Cryptology ePrint archive ]