Types of Activity / Turnover Ratios

Activity / Turnover Ratios are a set of financial ratios used to measure the efficiency of various operations of a business. Activity ratios measure the efficiency of the firm in using its resources/ assets. These ratios are also known as Asset Management Ratios because these ratios indicate the efficiency with which the assets of the firm are managed/utilized.

Activity / Turnover Ratios essentially evaluate the operational efficiency of any business by measuring the rate of utilization of various assets. These ratios are directly linked to the lifeblood of a business i.e. Revenue. The efficiency is measured in terms of generation of revenue by the respective assets. These ratios are also known as performance/ efficiency ratios.

Types of Activity Ratio

Assets such as machinery, raw materials, debtors etc are introduced to a firm to generate sales for the firm and thereby generate profits. These turnover ratios indicate the speed at which these assets are converted into sales. For example, inventory turnover ratio indicates the number of times the inventory is converted into sales in a year.

Types of Activity / Turnover Ratios

The result of an activity/turnover ratio is an absolute number representing the efficiency of the asset utilization. Higher the ratio better is the efficiency.

Types of Turnover Ratios

As we can make out, the turnover ratios are essentially a relationship between sales and the assets of the firm. Based on the different types of assets, the activity/turnover ratio is classified into following types.

Debtor / Receivable Turnover Ratio and Average Collection Period

The receivable turnover ratio indicates the frequency of conversion from debtors to cash normally in a year. It also suggests the extent of liquidity of debtors. Average collection period gives a time period in which debtors are converted into cash. Both the ratios indicate the same thing but in different terms. The former is expressed in no. of times whereas the latter in no. of days or months. The formula for debtor / receivable turnover ratio and average collection period is as follows:

Debtor / Receivable Turnover Ratio =

Credit Sales

Average Debtors + Bills Receivables


Average Collection Period =

365 days or 12 Months

Debtor / Receivable Turnover Ratio

Stock / Inventory Turnover Ratio

Inventory turnover ratio indicates how many times inventory is sold and replaced in a financial year. In other words, the ratio gives the frequency of conversion of inventory into cash in a given financial year. Normally, a higher ratio is considered good as it suggests better inventory management.

Stock / Inventory Turnover Ratio


Cost of Goods Sold

Average Inventory

Assets Turnover Ratio

Asset Turnover Ratio calculates the value of revenue achieved per dollar of investment. A higher ratio indicates better asset management and utilization and vice versa. The ratio also depends on the business to business based on their profit margins. With lower margins, this ratio is normally high. The ratio is calculated as below:

Asset Turnover Ratio


Net Revenue


This ratio may have different variants depending upon the asset category.

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Sanjay Borad

Sanjay Bulaki Borad

Sanjay Borad is the founder & CEO of eFinanceManagement. He is passionate about keeping and making things simple and easy. Running this blog since 2009 and trying to explain "Financial Management Concepts in Layman's Terms".

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