Exchange Traded Funds

What are Exchange-Traded Funds?

Exchange-Traded Funds are investment vehicles listed on the stock exchange which provide easy access to asset classes by tracking the performance of underlying indices. They are an important asset in portfolio management.

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) are one of the options available to investors in the investment universe. These are investment vehicles structured like funds and provide access to various asset classes like stocks, bonds, currencies, or commodities. Exchange-Traded Funds usually track an index representing the aforementioned asset classes, though there are actively managed ETFs available in the market. Even the index tracking ones are not completely passive, though, as the underlying indices are rebalanced periodically. Let’s look at how ETFs are created.

Creation and Structure of Exchange-Traded Funds

Exchange-Traded Funds are created by institutional investors known as authorized participants. They are the sole entities that can make or redeem an ETF. While creating the instrument, authorized participants design a portfolio of the required securities in decided proportion. For instance, if the ETF in question is an equity index tracking vehicle, the authorized participant will keep underlying stocks in the same proportion as in the equity index. They’ll then give this basket to the fund provider and receive equivalent ETF shares in return.

It is important to note that authorized participants only deal in large chunks of the basket of securities when dealing with the fund provider. These chunks are creation units. These participants also do the redemption in similar-sized creation units.

Exchange-Traded Funds are pools of securities whose ownership units are known as shares in terms of structure. Shareholders are indirect owners of the underlying assets of an ETF, and the said shares are proof of this ownership. An ETF can take a structure like that of a corporation or a trust, which depends on the structures permitted by the country of domicile. For instance, ETFs are mostly structured as open-end management investment companies in the US.

Redemption of ETFs

When there is an excess supply of ETF shares or an investor wishes to sell their shares, authorized participants can redeem the creation units. They return the creation units to the ETF provider and receive the underlying securities or cash equivalent based on the current market value of the ETF shares.

The creation and redemption process helps to keep the price of the ETF shares in line with the net asset value (NAV) of the underlying securities. If the demand for ETF shares increases, more creation units are created, and if the demand decreases, creation units are redeemed. This process helps to maintain the liquidity and stability of the ETF in the market.

Let’s now see the basic properties of ETFs and the types that are available in the market.

Exchange Traded Funds (ETF)

Properties and Advantages of Exchange Traded Funds

Listed As Shares

Exchange-Traded Funds are listed on stock exchanges and can thus trade like individual stocks. Their prices change throughout the day, also similar to stocks. Like some other fund vehicles, the calculation of Net Asset Value (NAV) takes place at the end of a trading day. In some cases, the fund house may also provide a real-time indicative NAV.

Arbitrage Opportunity

For large investors who have the capacity to buy creation units directly from the fund provider, ETFs can provide an arbitrage opportunity as depending on the level of demand for the fund, its market price can be higher or lower than its indicative NAV.

Interesting Investment Prospect

Even though most ETFs track an index, their sheer breadth and uniqueness of the underlying indices can make them interesting investment prospects. The underlying indices can be publicly available or privately constructed, focused on a particular country or investing across a region, and may provide access to a particular asset class or be a blend of asset classes.

Exposure to Focused Asset Class

As far as the major advantages of exchange-traded funds are concerned, the most prominent is helping investors test the waters of the asset classes they are interested in. For instance, an ETF focused on emerging markets can be the starting point of exposure to stocks or bonds from the relatively risky analytical group for a US investor.

Cheaper in Comparison with MFs

Since it does not avail the services of a portfolio manager, such exposure becomes cheaper than that offered by a mutual fund.

Disadvantages of Exchange Traded Funds

Though Exchange Traded Funds come with several advantages, they are not free of faults.

Tracking Error

Tracking errors can be a prominent disadvantage. Though no ETF can completely replicate its underlying index, a noticeable tracking error can be witnessed in strategies that may not allow complete replication of the index due to liquidity issues, like leverage strategies or ETFs investing in commodities.

When choosing ETFs that mimic an index, tracking error becomes an essential consideration for investors. The lower the tracking error, the better the job the particular fund is doing in replicating the performance of the underlying index.

Illiquid due to Small Size

The small size of an ETF can be a disadvantage as well. For relatively small funds, it may be difficult to completely replicate an index, which may increase its tracking error and make it illiquid, especially in times of distress.

Tax Implications

Investors need to exercise caution for ETFs that invest beyond the traditionally popular asset classes of equities and fixed income. Apart from an increased tracking error, tax implications may be high at best or unclear at worst, which may have a sizable impact on returns.

Types of Exchange-Traded Funds

Exchange-Traded Funds can be of many types and provide exposure to several assets classes, geographies, and market capitalizations.

Examples of ETFs available to US investors

The SPDR S&P 500 ETF (SPY) is by far the largest and most popular ETF (in terms of trading volume) listed in the US. It invests in large-cap blend stocks (both growth and equities). The Vanguard Total Stock Market ETF (VTI) invests across market caps in the US. On the other hand, the iShares Core S&P Mid-Cap ETF (IJH) and the iShares Russell 2000 ETF (IWM) focuses on mid and small-cap stocks, respectively.

There are ETFs that track specific sectors of the US equities market, like the Technology Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLK) and the Financial Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLF).

ETFs like the Vanguard FTSE All-World ex-US ETF (VEU) provide exposure to stocks beyond US shores, while those like the Vanguard FTSE Developed Markets ETF (VEA) and the Vanguard FTSE Emerging Markets ETF (VWO) provide exposure to the analytical groups of developed and emerging markets respectively.

Then some ETFs provide exposure to US bonds (iShares Core U.S. Aggregate Bond ETF (AGG)), emerging market bonds (PowerShares Emerging Markets Sovereign Debt (PCY)), commodities (PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking Fund (DBC)), and currencies (PowerShares DB US Dollar Bullish Fund (UUP)).

The more exotic variety of index-tracking ETFs is leveraged and inverse ETFs. There are target retirement date ETFs available as well.

Given their structure and basic philosophy of providing access to an asset class as investment pools, exchange-traded funds are often compared to mutual funds. Though there are similarities, ETFs differ from their mutual fund peers in some important aspects. Let’s take a look at these differences.

Exchange-Traded Funds vs. Mutual Funds

Both Exchange Traded Funds, and Mutual Funds are baskets of securities that issue shares or units to investors in exchange for providing indirect access to that basket. The shares or units of both investment vehicles can be created and redeemed on demand without there being a cap on the number of outstanding shares or units. However, there are some important differences.

Active Management

While most ETFs mimic an index and thus are passively managed products, a large section of mutual funds are actively managed, i.e., there is an investment manager who decides the composition of the underlying basket of securities based on his view on specific stocks.

Cost of Investing

Due to their passive nature, most ETFs are cheaper than their actively managed counterparts. Even if we compare index mutual funds, which are themselves passively managed, to ETFs, the latter may be a bit cheaper than the former. One needs to be cognizant of the trading costs associated with ETFs, though, which can reduce their advantage over relatively cheaper mutual funds.

Tax Friendliness

ETFs can also be more tax-efficient than mutual funds. This is primarily because they tend to have lower portfolio turnover than actively managed mutual funds, resulting in comparatively lower capital gains. They are also more transparent than mutual funds as their composition is available on a daily basis. In contrast, mutual funds are available once a month, quarter, or even lower frequency.


The most prominent difference between the two is their availability. While mutual funds can be traded once a day after the end of trading, ETFs can be traded throughout the day on the exchange like individual stocks. One needs a brokerage account to do so, and the process is the same as buying or selling a stock. Though ETFs can be purchased from the fund provider, it needs to be done in large blocks of creation units, which is out of reach of retail investors. On the other hand, to buy or sell a mutual fund, an investor necessarily needs to approach the fund house. Though some open-end mutual funds are listed on exchanges, they have very little trading volume, if at all, thus making approaching the fund house for trade almost compulsory.

Future trends and innovations in exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are continually shaping the landscape of this investment vehicle. Here are some key developments to look out for:

ESG and socially responsible ETFs

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing has gained significant traction in recent years. ESG-focused ETFs allow investors to align their investments with their values by incorporating environmental and social factors alongside financial considerations. This trend is likely to continue as investors seek sustainable and responsible investment options.

Active ETFs and Non-transparent ETF Structures

Traditionally, ETFs have been passively managed, aiming to replicate the performance of an underlying index. However, active ETFs are emerging, which are managed by portfolio managers who actively select and manage the ETF’s holdings. Additionally, non-transparent ETF structures have been introduced, which aim to provide active strategies while disclosing holdings less frequently than traditional ETFs.

Leveraged and Inverse ETFs

Leveraged ETFs aim to magnify the daily returns of an underlying index, often with two or three times the exposure, allowing investors to potentially amplify gains or losses. Inverse ETFs, on the other hand, seek to provide the opposite performance of an index, allowing investors to profit from declining markets. These types of ETFs can be useful for short-term trading strategies but require careful understanding and monitoring due to their inherent risks.

Blockchain and Cryptocurrency ETFs

With the rise of cryptocurrencies, there has been increasing interest in ETFs that provide exposure to this asset class. Blockchain ETFs, which invest in companies involved in blockchain technology, have also gained attention. However, regulatory considerations and the evolving nature of the cryptocurrency market make these types of ETFs subject to specific challenges and scrutiny.

Customizable and Thematic ETFs

Investors are increasingly interested in tailor-made investment solutions. Customizable ETFs allow investors to create portfolios based on specific criteria, such as asset allocation preferences or thematic investment themes like clean energy, robotics, or artificial intelligence. These ETFs provide flexibility and the ability to focus on niche areas of interest.

Fee Transparency and Cost Competition

As the ETF market continues to grow and mature, there is a focus on fee transparency and cost competitiveness. Providers are striving to offer low-cost ETF options to attract investors, and this trend is likely to persist as investors seek cost-efficient investment solutions.

Enhanced Data and Analytics

ETF providers are incorporating advanced data and analytics to offer investors insights into fund performance, risk metrics, and portfolio composition. This helps investors make informed decisions and better understand the ETFs they invest in.

Global Expansion and Regional-specific ETFs

The ETF market is expanding beyond traditional markets, and regional-specific ETFs are being introduced to provide exposure to specific countries or regions. This allows investors to diversify geographically and capture potential opportunities in international markets.

It’s important to note that these trends and innovations are dynamic and subject to regulatory changes, market demand, and technological advancements. Investors should stay informed and consider their investment objectives and risk tolerance when incorporating these developments into their investment strategies.

Read more about other types of Derivative Instruments.

Sanjay Borad

Sanjay Bulaki Borad

MBA-Finance, CMA, CS, Insolvency Professional, B'Com

Sanjay Borad, Founder of eFinanceManagement, is a Management Consultant with 7 years of MNC experience and 11 years in Consultancy. He caters to clients with turnovers from 200 Million to 12,000 Million, including listed entities, and has vast industry experience in over 20 sectors. Additionally, he serves as a visiting faculty for Finance and Costing in MBA Colleges and CA, CMA Coaching Classes.

2 thoughts on “Exchange Traded Funds”

  1. Hi I study material regarding Financial Management, its really fantastic and helpful.
    But I need to know what is “Leverage Trading”.

    • Leverage trading is a system which allows the traders to open the positions much larger than his own capital, it can also be termed as margin trading. For this, the trader needs to invest a certain percentage of the position. The leverage trading is popular among traders and brokers.


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