## Dividend Payout Ratio

The ratio of dividends to earnings available for share holders is called the Dividend Payout Ratio. And this Dividend Payout Ratio Calculator makes this calculation easier. The earnings that the company has left over after the dividend payment is retained for the purpose of reinvestment. And we call it as retained earnings. Therefore, Retention ratio can be calculated by subtracting dividend payout ratio from 1 (total earnings).

## Formula

For calculating dividend payout ratio, we divide DPS (Dividend Per Share) from EPS (Earnings Per Share). Hence the Formula can be represented as:

**Dividend Payout Ratio** = Dividend Per Share / Earnings Per Share

## About the Calculator / Features

Dividend payout ratio calculator is handy online tool that aids in calculating the payout ratio by simply entering following data:

- Dividend Per Share
- Earnings Per Share

## Calculator

## How to Calculate using Calculator

The calculator quickly provides result of calculation by entering following details into it:

### Dividend Per Share

It is the amount of dividend paid to shareholders. However, it does not include the dividend paid to preference shareholders. We can calculate dividend per share by dividing total dividends distributed among equity shareholders from the total number of equity shares.

You can take help of our calculator for EPS calculation – Earning Per Share Calculator.

### Earnings Per Share

Earnings per share is the net earnings per share after paying off all the expenses and taxes. And we can calculate it by dividing net income less preference dividend from average number of outstanding equity shares.

You can take help of our calculator for DPS calculation – Dividend Per Share Calculator.

## Example of Payout Ratio

Let us try to understand this concept with the help of an example.

Following is the data of two companies, Alpha Ltd. and Beta Ltd. for three years.

Dividend distributed per share by Alpha Ltd. in Year 1 = $25, Year 2 = $30 and Year 3 = $45. And its earnings per share in Year 1 = $100, Year 2 = $120 and Year 3 = $180.

And the dividends distributed by Beta Ltd. per share in Year 1 = $20, Year 2 = $27 and in Year 3 = $35. While the earnings per share in respective years is as follows: Year 1 = $80, Year 2 = $90 and Year 3 = $105.

**Dividend Payout Ratio of Alpha Ltd.**

Years | Dividend Per Share | Earnings Per Share | Dividend Payout Ratio |

1 | $25 | $100 | 25% |

2 | $30 | $120 | 25% |

3 | $45 | $180 | 25% |

**Dividend Payout Ratio of Beta Ltd.**

Years | Dividend Per Share | Earnings Per Share | Dividend Payout Ratio |

1 | $20 | $80 | 40% |

2 | $27 | $90 | 30% |

3 | $35 | $105 | 33.33% |

## Interpretation

A company having higher dividend payout ratio is said to be better than one having lower ratio. However, this may not be true at times. In the above example, Alpha Ltd. is distributing dividend at a constant rate of 25% while the distribution made by Beta Ltd. is fluctuating. It states that Alpha Ltd. is more trustworthy than Beta Ltd. There could be a possibility of Payout Ratio declining in next year or it can also go up. However, predicting this seems to be a difficult task. As it depends on several factors.

The key however, remains the performance of the company, dividend consistency policy and the opportunities available with the company for deploying the retained earnings gainfully.

## Alternative Method at a Company Level

In the above calculator we discussed and attempted to calculate the dividend payout ratio at share level, largely applicable for investors and individual shareholders. However, for the purpose of analysis, company valuations, cash flow perspective and so on we can calculate the dividend payout ratio at a Unit/Company Level. And this can be calculated by simply dividing total dividend quantum or outgo by the earnings after preference dividend. The formula would be:

**Dividend Payout Ratio** = (Number of Equity Shares*Dividend Per Share)/Earnings after deducting the Preference Dividend.

In this calculation we need the following details and steps:

- Total or Average Number of Equity Shares of the company during the year, eligible for Dividend.
- Dividend per share.
- The above multiplication will give us the total quantum of dividend paid or proposed to be paid.
- Total Earnings of the company after deducting the preference dividend paid or payable.
- And finally we divide the dividend quantum as per point 3 from the earnings available as per point 4. This will be the dividend payout ratio and is usually expressed as a percentage.

### Example

Let us review the above example of Alpha Ltd to calculate this ratio at the company level. For the purpose we need to know the total number of equity shares of Alpha Ltd, that we assume as 1,000,000 Shares. The EPS for the year 1 is given as $100 and Dividend Per Share for the same year is given as $25. Let us now calculate the Dividend Payout Ratio as per alternate method.

Total Dividend Quantum = 100000*25 (No of Shares*Dividend per share) = $25000000

Total Earnings after Preference Dividend = 1000000*$100 (No of Shares*EPS)=$100000000

**Dividend Payout Ratio** = $25,000,000/$100,000,000 = **1:4 or 25%**

## Calculator

## Cautions

Thus the dividend payout ratio tells us how much portion of the earnings of the company is being paid to the equity shareholders. Analyzing the same over the years can give us the status whether it is increasing/decreasing and what relation it has with the earnings. While analyzing a company on the basis of its payout ratio, one has to be very careful and should look other factors too that affects the earnings of the company. For example, a new start up company may distribute a low dividend but may have high earning potential. Therefore, no one ratio should be considered in isolation before taking investments decisions.

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